In 1751, the then Nawab of Bengal, Alivardi Khan agreed to cough up 1.2 million rupees as an annual tax, which increased the already flourishing wealth of the Maratha Empire. Jahangir also follows a policy of conciliation towards the Rajput. Aurangzeb died in 1707, an event which completely changed the dynamics of the war because all of his approximate 17 heirs were of age to ascend the throne (Keay 2000, p.359). He found that the States of Bijapur and Golcunda were a source of help to the Marathas who were employed in those states in large numbers. During Balaji Baji Rao’s reign, the Maratha Empire extended further, before reaching its peak. There might be a possibility that Rajputs,Sikhs or jaats get offended if Delhi was captured by Marathas in 1737 or 1758. The Saiyid brothers were the powerful duo of Saiyid Husain Ali Khan and Saiyid Hassan Ali Khan Barha. Aurangzeb’s death in 1707 finally brought to an end on the Deccan. For many years, the western Deccan Plateau served as the home for a group of Marathi warriors, which flourished under a prominent warrior named Shivaji Bhonsle. The Marathas used the harsh religious stance of the emperor to mount a campaign for the creation of a Hindu kingdom in the area south of the Deccan Plateau. Upon invading certain areas, for example Hyderabad, they established a ‘protection racket’ against the Mughal armies and revenue collectors (Keay 2000, p.357-9). He led the troops to victory time and time again, and was only defeated after one of his men betrayed his position to Aurangzeb. During the Shah Jahan's reign, Aurangazeb, as governor of Deccan, followed an aggressive Deccan policy. References: Satish Chandra(Medieval India).Also minor facts from other books and figure and facts from verified Internet sources.28.CLIMAX AND CRISIS OF THE MUGHAL EMPIREThe Rise of the MarathasThe rise of Marathas, like that of the Rajputs, was a medieval (8th century onwards) phenomenon. During the ‘Second Anglo-Maratha War,’ which took place from 1803 to 1805, the British forces led by Arthur Wellesley defeated the Marathas, which gave rise to a number of treaties in favor of the British. The Marathas were also determined to drive the Mughal rulers out of India as they wanted their country to be ruled by the Hindus. Traditionally, the Narmada river was the dividing line between Deccan, the Marathas’ stronghold, and the North, the Mughals’ (Keay 2000, p. 357). In an attempt to drive the Marathas out of North India, Durrani joined forces with Nawab of Oudh and the Rohillas, before challenging the Marathas for a battle. This article will will explore the highlight of Aurangzeb’s reign: the Mughal-Maratha wars; was well as how they were the beginning of the end for the Mughal empire. Sambhaji was executed in 1689. The Mughal–Maratha Wars, also called the Maratha War of Independence, were fought between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire from 1680 to 1707. They arranged for Farrukhsiyar’s death when he would not sign a peace treaty with the Marathas. Subsequently, Shivaji coined the term ‘Hindavi Swarajya,’ which called for self-rule among the Hindus. Also, Shivaji’s conflicts with the Mughals, which started from the year 1657, served as one of the primary reasons for the hatred towards the Mughals. Siege of Bijapur which had been in decadence due to internal dissensions began in 1685 and Aurangzeb arrived there in person in 1686. Balaji Baji Rao – Also called as Nana Saheb, Balaji Baji Rao was one of the most important Prime Ministers of the empire as the actual king was nothing more than a mere figurehead during his tenure. What caused the real breakdown of the Mughal Empire was his faulty Deccan policy. • He pursued a conciliatory policy towards Rajputs and Marathas. The eight ministers were ‘Peshwa’ (Prime Minister), ‘Amatya’ (Finance Minister), ‘Sachiv’ (Secretary), ‘Mantri’ (Interior Minister), ‘Senapati’ (Commander-in-Chief), ‘Sumant’ (Foreign Minister), ‘Nyayadhyaksh’ (Chief Justice), and ‘Panditrao’ (High Priest). Baji Rao went on to become a prominent Peshwa of the Maratha Empire as he was responsible for the empire’s great expansion from 1720 to 1740. Baji Rao I is said to have led the Maratha forces in more than 40 battles, winning most of them, including the ‘Battle of Palkhed’ (1728), ‘Battle of Delhi’ (1737), and ‘Battle of Bhopal’ (1737). Battle of Itakhuli-Wikipedia Despite the policies established by the Saiyid brothers to reconcile all of the nobles in the remaining states and create a centralised administration, many nobles across the empire disobeyed them, primarily because they envied the seemingly limitless power that the Saiyids had, and wanted the same for themselves (Sunidhi). Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal empire from 1658,when he forcibly ascended the throne by defeating his brother and imprisoning his father, until his death in 1707. The great warrior king is revered even today by a huge sect of people in India. The first was in 1719, when Balaji Vishwanath signed the famous treaty with Farukh Siyar. He was immensely disliked by his people because he undid most of the work on religious tolerance that his predecessors achieved, by taxing non-Muslims and razing Hindu temples. But Aurangzeb could not see this possibility. JAHANGIR MUGHAL RELATIONS WITH THE RAJPUT. The Marathas, as they called themselves, were led by Shivaji in a protest against the rule of the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1645. In this way, Marathas were highly regarded among the citizens for their ability to save them from violence and poverty, while the Mughals were increasingly painted in a villainous image. The policy towards Marathas was not successful either. However, the first phase of his relations with the Rajputs did not yield complete peace and cooperation, and served as … He was one of the reasons why Maratha Empire reached its pinnacle during his son’s reign. Bahadur Shah I began attempts to unify the empire contrary to Aurangzeb’s decentralised system. The expansion of Maratha power in the northern territory of the Indian subcontinent caused a great concern in the court of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Marathas used weapons like cannons, muskets, matchlocks, daggers, and spears among other weapons. The Maratha Empire formally began with the rise of Chhatrapati Shivaji in 1674. His mom was also a Rajput princess. In our next article, we will explore the British colonisation of India. Aurangzeb was once partially accountable for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Specifically, it will look at the series of events and influences that occurred from the 1660s to 1730s, including Shivaji’s revolt, Aurangzeb’s death, and the rise of the Saiyid brothers, that contributed to the Mughal’s loss of power. The Marathas were later criticized for failing to treat their fellow Hindus equally when they were in power. Aurangzeb was not a successful emperor. Both had large armies of men that would in the 30-year war continue to establish and re-establish dominance in the area. This would later go down in history as one of the prominent events as the empire would later be ruled by the Peshwa clan. They were also intelligent in the way they used their weapons. BalajiPeshwa convinced Angria on the futility of a fight and got him to side with Shahu and notTarabai.Eager to curb the growing power of the Marathas, the Mughal king appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as the governor of the Deccan. serious setback to the prestige of the Empire.4. Unofficially, however, Mughal reign became obsolete much sooner than 1856. In 1714, Balaji Vishwanath came up with a brilliant strategy of entering into a treaty (Treaty of Lonavala) with Kanhoji Angre, which gave the Marathas access to navy. Therefore, he decided to continue the policy of conquest towards the Deccan. Image Credit : https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/460422761885610272/?lp=true. After the battle of Panipat, Madhav Rao I, the fourth Peshwa of the empire, began to resurrect the Maratha Empire. However, Sambhaji came across as a cruel ruler as compared to his father. The Mughal Empire officially ruled in India from approximately 1526 until 1856. Later, his son Humayun had great clashes with the Suri king, Sher Shah Suri. For example, this was the case with Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719), who was unable to challenge his brother on his own and was supported by a number of troops provided by the Saiyids. After defeating the Nawab of Bengal, the British East India Company had assumed power in the east and was now eyeing the northern territory of India, which was being largely controlled by the Marathas. A friendly policy towards these two states could have made them his allies against the Maratha. For long it has been held that the Mughal alliance with the Rajputs was determined by personal religious be­liefs of the individual rulers. The army of the Marathas kept growing, which gave them the confidence to march towards Delhi in 1719, where they managed to defeat the Mughal governor Sayyid Hussain Ali, before deposing the then Mughal emperor. Both had mixed origins which have been discussed at length. Both had large armies of men that would in the 30-year war continue to establish and re-establish dominance in the area. The two were elite political actors in the Mughal empire. But despite considerable Mughal pressure, the Marathas reciprocated with just as much pressure. Shivaji left his son Sambhaji in a strong position to continue developing the Empire, which he did. In the 1650s, Shivaji became fed up with the religiously-based injustices in the Mughal Empire and began to rebel against it. The process of conquering the South was slow but the Mughuls finally succeeded during the reign of Aurangzeb. The nobles maintained their power in their states, and in the decades that followed, the Mughal Empire was further divided into several successor states. Jahandar Shah was another weak and ineffective ruler. Sambhaji – After the demise of Shivaji, his eldest son Sambhaji ascended the throne and continued the expansion of his territory. Under Shahu’s rule, Balaji Vishwanath was appointed as the Prime Minister (Peshwa) of the Maratha Empire in 1713. Image Credit : http://yugaparivartan.com/2016/01/20/third-battle-of-panipat-did-abdali-win-or-marathas-lose/. Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath – Balaji Vishwanath was the sixth Prime Minister, who gained control of the empire during 18th century. At this time, the Mughal Empire was decentralised, meaning that many of the states and even towns were managed by their own nobles, who acted as a mediator with the Emperor, but rarely liaised with him. But all of the three attempts failed. Hence, leaders of various groups like the Peshwas, Holkars, Gaekwads, Scindias, Bhonsales, and Puars started ruling different Maratha states. To improve the revenue of the empire, Shivaji abolished the ‘Jagirdari System’ and introduced the ‘Ryotwari System.’ He also imposed heavy tax on non-Maratha territories and threatened non-Maratha rulers with dire consequences, should they fail to cough up the taxes imposed on them by the Marathas. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edged by an endless stretch of golden beaches, India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes, magnificent historical sites, royal cities, colourful people and rich culture. During the Shah Jahan’s reign, Aurangazeb, as governor of Deccan, followed an aggressive Deccan policy. On this authority, the Company associated itself with the Marathas and the noblemen in several states, most of which established a ‘banian’ or ‘dubash’ as a mediator between the Company and the locals (Keay 2000, p. 376). Ultimately, this resulted in Britain’s control of India. © Odyssey Travel 2020 All Rights Reserved, Cultural and History Tour of India | Small Group Tour, India Short Tour | Small group tour for seniors, North East India small group escorted cultural tour, Flinders Ranges National Parks, South Australia. Between the deaths of Shivaji and Aurangzeb (1680 to 1707), the Mughals and Marathas constantly met with strife over the territory that each wanted in the name of their religions. Despite having given up hope of winning the wars, Aurangzeb prolonged them for many years, then later planned his retreat. As a result, the Saiyids successfully plotted for his dethrone, and roped in the Marathas in the process. More men joined his cause, and Shivaji grew bolder in his campaigns to loot the rich Mughal towns, namely Surat. The Maratha Empire, also known as the Maratha Confederacy, dominated a large portion of India during the 17th and 18th century. The Deccan Wars started in 1680 with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb’s invasion of the Maratha enclave in Bijapur established by Chatrapati Shivaji. Shivaji sued for the opportunity to negotiate his fate, so the Emperor paid for him to be transferred to and accommodated in Agra (Keay 2000, p. 353). In December 1678, he introduced a change of policy towards the Rajputs who had contributed much to the growth of the Mughal Empire in India. He became a Maratha Peshwa at a critical time, when the Marathas had lost the ‘Third Battle of Panipat.’ Hence, Madhav Rao I was largely responsible for rebuilding the empire, before it was finally annihilated by the British. In order to manage the empire more effectively, he gave semi-autonomy to selected knights, who took charge of various semi-autonomous Maratha states. With each win over the Muslim oppressors, Shivaji grew more and more popular as a symbol for Hindu nationalists in their defiance of Muslim supremacy (Keay 2000, p.350). They continued to fight among themselves as well as against the Mughals in the Deccan. Also, Shivaji’s conflicts with the Mughals, which started from the year 1657, served as one of the primary reasons for the hatred towards the Mughals. The Deccan policy of Aurangzeb was also partly responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. This was particularly evident during the Anglo-French battles for control of the continent’s south. nobles in the Mughal court. However, their influence was paramount to Mughal history and the end of the Mughal-Maratha wars. Hence, Maratha Empire is largely credited with ending the Mughal rule in India and is often seen as a true Indian power, as it dominated the Indian subcontinent during 17th and 18th centuries. from the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha … These two elements created the perfect opportunity for Shivaji to take action against the regime. restore them to fully committed warriors for the Mughal cause. They have also been nicknamed the ‘kingmakers’ because of their impressive influence over deciding who would ascend the throne. Probably it is believed that extinction of the states of Bijapur and Golconda was a prior necessity for the destruction of the power of the Marathas in the Deccan. The Saiyids then promoted two ineffectual young emperors one after the other, both whom were unable to remain in power for more than six months. He had also gathered an armed force to tackle issues with various other rulers, including the Mughals. The Maratha Empire was then ruled by various rulers like Sambhaji’s half-brother Rajaram, Rajaram’s widow Tarabai, and then by Sambhaji’s son Shahu. Sub- The Mughal policy towards the Rajputs contributed to the expansion and consolidation of the Mughal Empire under Akbar and his successors. There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha confederacy. From this moment onwards, the already weakened Mughal Empire started fearing the Marathas. Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy can be divided into four phases Phase-I (1658-68) At its peak, the Maratha Empire extended from Peshawar in the north to Thanjavur in the south. Initially deriving from the western Deccan, the Marathas were a peasant warrior group that rose to prominence during the … As days passed by, Shahu became more of a puppet at the hands of his Prime Minister Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, who took major decisions for the betterment of the empire. Further still, human capital was a significant portion of the economy as states sold the use of their troops, domestically as well as in Europe (Keay 2000, p.376). Akbar began to extend his empire towards the South and the rest of the Mughul emperors also followed his policy. In 1701, at the sieges of khelna, he did good service against the Marathas, and was rewarded by a rise in his mansab. Shahu – Under Shahu’s reign, the Maratha Empire saw a great expansion. Causes for the Decline 1. However, in 1689 Sambhaji was captured and executed by the Mughals on various charges, including rape and murder. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed as the new Peshwa of the empire, after his father Balaji Vishwanath’s demise in April. This signified the absolute end of the Mughal empire and the start of India as a British colony. But he was unsuccessful, and revolts from the Rajput and Sikh nobility arose for the proper authority to manage their lands. He continued the legacy that his father and brother set, but after nearly two decades of fighting, spoke with Aurangzeb about a cease-fire. They thus began to expand outward to reclaim their traditional lands, including to the west to the Gaikwads, south to the Peshwas, north to the Scindias, and east to the Bhonsles. Due to the growing defiance that Shivaji was instilling in his followers, Aurangzeb became even stricter with taxes and policies against Muslims. Shivaji left his son Sambhaji in a strong position to continue developing th… At that time, the Maratha ruler, Sivaji carved out an independent Maratha kingdom in the territories of north and south Konkan. Finally, during the ‘Third Anglo-Maratha War,’ Peshwa Baji Rao II was defeated by the British, which marked the end of the Maratha rule. The Maratha Empire, also known as the Maratha Confederacy, dominated a large portion of India during the 17th and 18th century. However, the Marathas were deserted by Rajputs and the Jats just before the battle, which ensured Marathas’ defeat at the battle. The vindictive Mughal emperor refused, and the wars continued. During his reign, the Saiyids yearned for more power and attempted to manipulate Farrukhsiyar to follow the policies that they set out, but he refused (Sunidhi). Causes of decline of Mughal Empire Beginning of the decline of the Mughal Empire can be traced to the strong rule of Aurangzeb. Securing Bijapur’s support to help defeat Shivaji, was the third alternative left to the Mughals. He remained steadfast on the trail for expanding the Maratha Empire and in 1674 was named king (Keay 2000, p. 354). Aurangzeb was bent upon crushing the power of the Marathas. Even when dignity and prestige were claimed to be more important than religion in the imperial courts (Keay 2000, p. 351), Aurangzeb heavily favoured Muslim as the administration’s dominant religion, and it was integral to the ‘state’s character, regardless of how the religion was interpreted or applied in a political sense’ (Pillalamarri 2016). Meanwhile, Shivaji had accumulated large areas of land through his campaigns. It will also point toward British colonisation as the final nail in the coffin for the Mughal empire. His Deccan campaign also proved failure and drained wealth of the kingdom too. Also, he married a number of Rajput Princesses of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner. Also, the title ‘Chhatrapati’ was bestowed upon Shivaji, which proclaimed him to be the king of the new Maratha kingdom. While explaining their motive behind turning their back on the Marathas, Rajputs and the Jats cited Marathas’ arrogance and haughtiness as reasons for abandoning them at the cusp of an important battle. Though, after the fall of Suri Dynasty, Humayun had alliances with several Indian […] After defeating the Rohillas and the Jats, Shinde’s forces recaptured Delhi and Haryana, which brought the Marathas back into the picture in the north. While, to the contrary the Marathas were seen as a guiding light for many people. He was also responsible for introducing the rule of the Peshwas within the Maratha Empire. He used guerrilla warfare and strong military prowess to overthrow several military posts in Bijapur. Gwalior Fort, Receive a AUD$350 voucher towards your first small group tour. Bahadur Shah was, however, successful in conciliating Chatrasal, the Bundela chief, and Churaman, After a failed attempt to stage a coup against British powers, the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Rangoon in 1857. The new Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah I, released Shahuji, grandson of Shivaji, from prison, who boldly took the Maratha throne (Keay 2000, p. 363). Aurangzeb's policy towards the Deccan had political as well as religious purpose. The Marathas, who started as a warrior group emerging from the Deccan Plateau, went on to control most parts of the Indian subcontinent before their decadence in the early 19th century. Maratha get close to Rajasthan. It was in the later part of Aurangzeb’s reign (1658-1707) until his death that power began to shift and the Mughal Empire began its downward trajectory. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edged by an endless stretch of golden beaches, India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes, magnificent historical sites, royal cities, colourful people, and rich culture. To his relief, the Saiyids, who closely hovered over his rule for the first year of his reign, were eliminated in 1720. When he became the Mughal emperor, for the first twenty five years, he concentrated on the northwest frontier. Akbar also initiated a series of liberal policies such as the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax and Jiziya between 1562 and 1564 in order to attract support from the Rajputs. They continued to fight among themselves as well as against the Mughals in the Deccan. Zulfiqar revised the policy of Aurangzeb and maintained friendly relations with Marathas and Rajputs. In the same year, Shivaji invaded Karnataka and marched further southwards to seize the forts of Gingee and Vellore. The failure to completely quell this revolt led to Maratha domination of large swaths of the northern Mughal Empire following the death of Aurangzeb. After Baji Rao’s demise in April 1740, Shahu appointed Baji Rao’s 19 year old son Balaji Baji Rao as the new Peshwa. In 1677, Shivaji entered into a treaty with the ruler of the Golkonda sultanate, who agreed to Shivaji’s terms to oppose the Mughals unitedly. His strategy was widely successful, and he was cunning against the opposing armies sent by the Emperor to deter him. • He acknowledged the independence of Mewar and Marwar. Religion was a major influence on politics in India at the time, and a decisive factor that contributed to the rise of the Maratha Empire. Madhav Rao I – Madhav Rao I was the fourth Peshwa of the empire. The Marathas were also determined to drive the Mughal rulers out of India as they wanted their country to be ruled by the Hindus. As far as the military administration was concerned, Shivaji paid special interest in building a strong navy as he had realized its importance as early as 1654. One did, however, agreed to the treaty overseen by the Saiyids to end the Mughal-Maratha wars, by compromising Mughal rule of Deccan for Maratha’s autonomy in their homeland (Keay 2000, p. 366). After capturing Peshawar on May 8, 1758, the Marathas were now prominent figures in the north as well. Shortly thereafter, the Marathas also experienced a succession war as Shivaji’s aunt challenged him on behalf of her son. When it came to the land-based armed forces of the Marathas, the standards of the infantry and artillery were comparable to that of the standards of the European forces. Traditionally, the Narmada river was the dividing line between Deccan, the Marathas’ stronghold, and the North, the Mughals’ (Keay 2000, p. 357). Marathas’ North Indian conquest looked impressive than ever after their decisive victory over the Afghan troops. Image Credit : https://www.quora.com/Where-was-the-Maratha-Empire-located. By 1760, the Maratha Empire had reached its peak with a territory of more than 2.5 million square km acres. Each state individually interacted with the Company through this mediator, segmenting the economy, just as they had segmented the administration. Aurangzeb’s policy towards the Deccan sultanates was guided by both imperialist interest and religious consideration. But instead, succession wars ensued among Mughal royalty, diverting their attentions from their external threats, whereby the Marathas were able to cross the Narmada river and successfully take a large amount of the Mughal territory. Contents1 Shivaji2 Marathas under Sambhaji3 Aurangzeb’s Last Stand Mughal Empire had its feet on the Indian soil with Babur, the descendant of Timur, invading India in the 15th century. ... And his attitude towards Marathas also varied. While the Empire’s political power steadily declined, its economy soared as this was the time that the East India Trading Company established its trade relations between the British and Mughal economies. At that time, the Maratha ruler, Sivaji carved out an independent Maratha kingdom in the territories of north and south Konkan. An administrative system known as ‘Ashtapradhan’ was formed by Shivaji during his reign. But the bolder he became, the more attention he drew from the Emperor. Jahangir made three attempts to conquer Ahmadnagar in 1608 C.E, 1611 C.E, and 1612 C.E. Jahangir Continue The Policy Of Conquesr Towards The Deccan: However, Jahangir could not tolerate this act of Malik Ambar. tude towards the Marathas during this long period underwent several changes and the other Rajput rulers as well changed their policy towards the Marathas with changing situations. However, he lacked an official title to rule over the new land of the Marathas. This administrative system, which consisted of a council of eight ministers, formed the base of the Maratha administration. Shivaji – Apart from founding the empire, Shivaji was also responsible in turning the Maratha power into a prominent force. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers i.e. She is largely credited for keeping the Mughals at bay after the demise of her husband, Chhatrapati Rajaram Bhosale. The ensuing battle that took place on January 14, 1761 would later be called as the ‘Third Battle of Panipat.’ Before the battle, the Marathas had sought the help of the Rajputs and Jats in order to combat the joint forces of Durrani, Rohillas, and the Nawab of Oudh. The coronation of Shivaji took place in such a manner that it sent out a message to all the non-Hindu rulers. He did not realize the importance of religious tolerance and the support and unity of the people for the progress of empire. Making Raigad as the capital, Shivaji acted almost immediately after his coronation by raiding Khandesh on October 1674. Next, the Saiyids supported Muhammad Shah as emperor, who reigned for nearly 30 years from 1719 to 1748. Mughal rule reiterated multiple times by Marathas You would find it surprising that the Marathas re affirmed the Mughal in his prestigious seat on multiple occasions. He took them on, winning some and loosing others raghoji then initiated a of! Of conquest towards the Deccan stricter with taxes and policies against Muslims against. New land of the new Maratha kingdom his strategy was widely successful, and spears among other.. The capital, Shivaji had accumulated large areas of land through his to... The 17th and 18th century Husain Ali Khan and Saiyid Hassan Ali Khan Barha sooner than.... 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Empire extended from Peshawar in the Mughal emperor, who reigned for nearly 30 years from to... 1611 C.E, 1611 C.E, and Shivaji grew bolder in his illustrious military career, which did... Fight among themselves as well and Sikh nobility arose for the start of the Mughal army undermined! P. 354 ) Rajput Princesses of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and extended their Empire till Peshawar by 1758 rule Balaji... Beginning of the Peshwas within the Maratha enclave in Bijapur Vishwanath signed the famous treaty with the Company through mediator! Were now prominent figures in the Deccan raiding Khandesh on October 1674 breakdown the! Also supportive to the expansion of his territory king ( Keay 2000 p.! Following the death of Aurangzeb join our newsletter mailing list to gain access... Million square km acres the Jats and the end of 17th century the decline of Mughal carved! Peshwa ) of the decline of Mughal power carved out an independent Maratha.. Reasons why Maratha Empire saw a great expansion the bolder he became the Mughal alliance with Company! Next article, we will explore the British colonisation of India during the 17th and 18th century Marathas ’ Indian!

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